antenna design

Antenna Design Considerations Using Trace Antenna in RF Product Design

There are several advantages of using a trace antenna in your RF product design. Among them include good performance, low cost, and small size for frequencies over 900MHz. You might want to keep in mind the following tips on making your antenna design flawless.



Available Antenna Types


Widely available standard designs you can use are F-type, L-type, and monopole. The standard F-type antennas are most commonly used and they offer the best trade-off between efficiency and size.



Circuit Board Constructions


Antennas require a keep-out area on the PCB, which is located around the antenna trace. Take note that the length of the PCB will determine the resonant frequency in which the trace will be shorter when the frequency is high.



Ground Plane Is Critical


PCB trace antennas are dependent on the ground plane. Thus, they can be effective if they have a ground plane. The impedance and performance of the PCB antenna will be affected by the shape and size of the ground plane that is relative to the antenna.



Matching Components


The total RF link budget and range performance will be greatly reduced when there is a mismatched antenna. So, make sure to incorporate a pi-network placed directly to the antenna feed point. This will prevent any unnecessary mismatch losses.



Beware Of The Environment


Take note that in antenna design, there are factors that can affect the turning and radiation pattern of the antenna. Such would include metal components, plastic enclosures, and the presence of components near the antenna itself. Therefore, don’t put any metallic objects or use a metalized or metallic plastic enclosure. All external influences that can affect the effectiveness of the antenna should be put far away on the field.



Every Application Needs Tuning


The PCB antenna is dependent on its board and its dimensions and matching are important for its implementation.


If you tend to copy an existing antenna design, you might not be able to ensure good performance. There are variations in grain and radiation when the parameters in the surroundings change.


So the length of the antenna design needs to be adjusted in conformance to these variables. Moreover, you need to complete the final tuning and matching in the end product enclosure and installation and not in the open air.



Importance Of Antenna Matching


When the antenna impedance will match the source impedance of 50 ohms, there is a transfer of maximum RF power.


For instance, you may consider a return loss of less than -10dB to be a good antenna match. This only means that 10% of the incident power has been reflected because of mismatch.


The return loss of the antenna has been characterized by measuring the reflected power at the feed point of the antenna, including its matching components.


The antenna then is disconnected from the transceiver, then a network analyzer is connected through a coaxial cable to the antenna in order to perform the measurements.


Take note that it is good to tune the antenna when it is in proper position and environment during normal operation.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

types of antennas - microwave antennas

Different Types of Microwave Antennas You Might Want To Know About

There are different types of microwave antennas that are proven critical in any microwave network. While many types are available to meet different mechanical and electrical requirements, the most common type used for terrestrial microwave networks is the parabolic.

However, there are also less frequently used such as the dielectric lens, flat panel, horn, sector, and Yagi. Each one is suitable for specific situations and systems. Here are some of the most common types of microwave antennas.



Standard Parabolic


Two of the main types of parabolic antennas are high performance and standard performance. In standard microwave parabolic antennas, the parabolic shape will focus the energy at the feed point and will assure a constant phase front at the aperture.

However, due to the potential interference of the standard performance antennas in the crowded microwave spectrum, the high-performance antennas are used instead for licensed microwave bands.

This is the requirement of most government regulations due to the greater suspension provided by high-performance antennas.



High Performance


A high-performance parabolic antenna uses a shroud to enhance the performance of the side lobe, as well as its front-to-back ratio. The shroud referred to is the one called ‘shield’ or ‘drum’ because of its appearance. Such a design will reduce the side lobes allowing the antenna to meet more stringent pattern requirements to reduce interference.



Ultra-High Performance


Other specialized designs also exist beyond the high-performance style microwave antennas, such as the ultra-high performance antenna or the super high performance. This type of specialized design will provide a slightly better pattern performance.

These designs are required in congested areas with high link density, which enables the successful coordination of the link. There are also other types of specialized antennas that meet requirements for ETSI Class 4. Such would contain lower side lobes in comparison to Class 3 antennas to help in the reduction of interference and offer better frequency reuse.





Sometimes called hub antennas, sector antennas are intended for the purpose of providing a segmented coverage pattern over a selected area. Such is the most common type of antenna used for cellular communication systems.

Sector antennas are able to deliver a wider beamwidth compared to parabolic point-to-point antennas. Thus, due to its wider beamwidth, it delivers a corresponding lower gain.



Flat Panel


Flat-panel antennas can be packaged in a low profile radome as square-shaped antennas. When aesthetics are important, flat panel antennas are used due to their visual appeal and concealment. Such are generally available for broadband wireless bands, which include 2.4, 3.5, and 5GHz bands.

Although flat-panel antennas are not optimal for point-to-point microwave networks, they can be utilized for some applications at the range of microwave frequency.



Yagi Antenna


This type of antenna is versatile as it uses a driven element with a reflector behind the driven element and a director in front of the driven element. This is a useful directive antenna in the HF, UHF, and VHF bands.

The Yagi uses relatively easy construction techniques to provide a reasonable gain of up to 2GHz.



RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

IPTV Set-Top Box

Here’s Why You Should Consider IPTV Over Regular TV

We live in an era of technological advancements. In fact, we’ve become increasingly dependent on the Internet for almost everything—from communicating to entertaining—that we invest in every innovation out there to help us get the most of our Internet connection.


If you have a television, you’ve probably been using Internet Protocol Television or IPTV for a while now without you realizing it. Simply put, IPTV means being able to watch your favorite TV programs by streaming them through your Internet connection. Here’s everything you need to know about this technology:



IPTV Set-Top Box versus Regular TV


To have a better understanding of what IPTV is, we need to compare it to regular TV programming. With a non-IPTV, a satellite dish or cable is used to transmit signals to your television so you can watch your favorite shows.


While this format has been used for many years, its downside is that you will only be able to watch these programs while they’re being broadcasted unless you have a recording device. So, if you’re out of the house when your favorite show is aired, you won’t be able to watch it.


IPTV solves this problem by transmitting shows and movies through your Internet connection. This means that you can enjoy video on demand where you have the freedom to watch your favorite shows whenever you want to.



The set-top box


Since not all televisions are equipped for IPTV, a set-top box is installed to translate the signal that you receive through your Internet connection into a format that’s recognizable by your television.


If you watch using your computer, you won’t need a set-top box since your device is already IPTV-ready. All you need to do is sign up for a streaming service and you can start enjoying your favorite TV shows and movies for a monthly fee.



The different types of IPTV Set-Top formats


Video on Demand (VOD)


If you’re subscribed to Netflix or Amazon Prime Video, then you’re already familiar with how Video on Demand (VOD) works. VOD providers give you the freedom to watch the video whenever you want it, which is why it’s very popular for many television users.



Live IPTV Set-Top Box


Live IPTV is pretty much the same with regular TV. The only difference is that you get to access to your favorite shows whenever you want to and stream them not only on your TV but your mobile devices as well. Some of the most popular IPTV services are CBS Sports HQ, Hulu Live TV, and FOX Sports Go.



Time-shifted media


Also known as catch-up TV, this kind of format allows you to watch TV shows that you missed because you’re away from home. The difference between time-shifted media and VOD is that shows have a limited shelf life.


This means that you can only go back to recent episodes of a show. Some VOD providers, however, offer shows that have been aired many years back.


No matter what format you choose, an IPTV set-top box will definitely change the way you enjoy television.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

wi-fi extenders

The Only Guide You’ll Need to Learn about Wi-Fi extenders

The United States is undeniably one of the biggest online markets in the world with more than 312 million users. In fact, Americans love their Internet connection so much that there are 152,069 available Wi-Fi locations across the country and 75.23% of the population already has access to an Internet connection. If you’re one of those households who can’t live without a good Wi-Fi connection, one of the challenges that you may be facing would be the lack of signal in some parts of your house, especially those that are already way too far from your router. But the good news is; you can already solve that problem with the help of Wi-Fi extenders.


Here’s what you need to know about them:


How a Wi-Fi Extender Works


Wi-Fi extenders are either desktop or plug-in devices that work by connecting to an existing Wi-Fi network then boost its signal to reach areas in your home or office that doesn’t get good coverage. Also known as wireless range extenders, these devices are usually placed between your wireless router and the area where you want to boost the signal so it can easily grab the existing signal and re-broadcast it using a different wireless channel.



The Differences between Extenders, Repeaters, and Boosters


The truth is, there really are no solid differences between Wi-Fi extenders, repeaters and boosters. In fact, manufacturers often use these terms interchangeably. But if you’re looking for the right device to boost the signal of your Wi-Fi connection, it’s very important to learn about these alternative devices.


A wi-fi booster is a universal term for all devices that extend a Wi-Fi signal. This means that an extender and repeater fall under the booster category. The main purpose of a Wi-Fi booster is to extend the bandwidth of your Wi-Fi network. So if you want to cover your entire property, you should invest in more than one booster.


A repeater, on the other hand, belongs to the first generation signal extenders that re-broadcast a signal to a localized area. This means that the signal strength broadcasted by the repeater is the same as the original signal from the router. Wireless repeaters are not used as much as extenders and boosters since it is not as efficient as the two.



The Difference between a Desktop and Plug-in Wi-Fi Extender


When searching for Wi-Fi extenders, you will be presented with a variety of options, two of which are desktop and plug-in extenders. But how do you know which one is best for your needs? A plug-in Wi-Fi extender is relatively cheaper and works almost the same as a router where you install it in an area where you want to boost your Wi-Fi signal. A plug-in device, however, is bigger and heavier, and it may not have the same features with the desktop extender that is lighter and offers better antenna placement.




At the end of the day, it’s all about choosing the right signal-boosting device that meets your requirements. Whether you opt for an extender, booster or repeater, make sure that it will have all the qualities that you need to enhance your browsing experience.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

iptv set-top box

Everything You Need to Know About Your IPTV Set-Top Box

Television consumption has become more than just a pastime in America. Over the years, Americans have grown to love the escape and pleasure that their television screens have given them. In fact, there are already 119.9 million TV households in the US as of the 2018-19 TV season where an individual spends at least three hours watching TV daily. But while television sets are an essential part of your household, you may not know much about its other parts including that IPTV set-top box that you may already have at home or you’re considering buying to enhance your viewing experience.



What is IPTV?


Internet Protocol Television is a form of TV content delivery that is done over Internet Protocol networks instead of the traditional satellite, cable or terrestrial formats. This means that IPTV uses your standard Internet connection to send movies and shows to your television.  IPTV is also different in the way that it broadcasts shows. If satellite broadcasts show following a specific schedule, IPTV comes in three formats: time-shifted media, video on demand and live television.



Time-shifted media gives you the option to catch up on TV shows that you missed because you were out of the house. It also allows you to replay a running TV show from the beginning if you missed it. Live television, on the other hand, is similar to your regular television while video on demand means the ability to browse through video content stored in a media catalog.




What is an IPTV set-top box?


Since most televisions are not equipped for IPTV yet, you will need to invest in a set-top box to be able to enjoy this service. An IPTV set-top box or set-top unit is a device that translates information that you receive from your Internet connection into a format that’s readable by your television. It generally has a TV-tuner input, an external source of the signal and display output to your television set.




What are the important features of an IPTV set-top box?


A conventional IPTV set-top box may have almost the same features as a cable box, but these additions are what makes it extra unique:





If you’re out of the house when your favorite TV show comes up, this feature may come in handy because it allows you to switch between channels at your preferred time so you can record that show on your recorder.



Parental lock and content filter


With the amount of content that the younger generation is consuming these days, having a parental lock and content filter feature can really be beneficial in your household. It allows you to filter what your children can and cannot watch on your TV by giving you control to block channels that are not appropriate for them.



Multi-purpose remote control


Some IPTV set-top boxes come with remote controls that also allows you to control the basic functions of your television like turning it on and off, switching between channels and adjusting volumes.



So, are you ready to give IPTV a try? It is the future of video, after all.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

microwave radios

Different Modern Uses of Microwave Radios

The revolutionary microwave telecommunication system was demonstrated in the 1930s, and practically during World War II with the development of the radar. Recently, the use of the microwave spectrum by new telecommunication technologies like direct-broadcast satellites and wireless networks has increased exponentially through broadcast radio and television directly to consumer homes.



Microwaves are basically a type of electromagnetic radiation, such as gamma rays, radio waves, ultraviolet radiation, and X-rays. This type of radiation is used in a range of different applications like communications, radar, and some household appliances for cooking.




Communications and Radar


Microwaves are mainly used for point-to-point communications systems to provide all types of information, such as data, video, and voice in both digital and analog formats. At the same time, they are used for supervisory control and data acquisition for remote machinery, signals, switches, and valves.



Radar is also an important application based on microwaves. Originally an acronym for the term Radio Detection and Ranging, radar has become so common and can refer to systems using radio waves and microwaves.




Microwave Heat Sources


Cooking food is also one of the major uses of microwaves, such as those in ovens as they can be used to transmit thermal energy. Microwave ovens were very large and costly when they were first made, but later they became so affordable and are common in homes all around the world until this day. Microwave heating systems were also used in many industrial applications, such as chemical, food, and materials processing, both continuous and batch operations.




Microwave Radios


Microwave radio links are communications systems that use radio wave beams within the microwave frequency range. This is intended to transmit data, voice, or video information between locations. It offers persistent connection with lower latency and higher capacity compared to satellite solutions. The good thing about microwave radios is that they have lower deployment costs compared to fiber optic cables.



Thus, the microwave radio link is used frequently for long distance transmissions where a cable is not feasible and is costly. Moreover, it is a reliable communication method widely used for offshore communications between platforms.




Advantages of Microwave Radio


  • Less distance between switching centers
  • Can carry huge quantities of information due to high operating frequencies
  • Does not require right-of-way acquisition between stations
  • Requires small antennas
  • Less crosstalk between voice channels
  • Few repeaters for amplification
  • Less maintenance, and increased reliability




Applications for Microwave Radio


  • Remote Sensing – This is used in earth orbit satellites for anomaly detection with mapping and imaging, broadcasting, high-speed Internet, and space operations.
  • Radar and Sonar – This is ideal for impedance matching, intelligence gathering, positioning, signal leveling, topographic mapping, and medical diagnostics.
  • Parameter Estimation – Microwave radios can be used for power flow measurements and environmental parameter estimation, such as humidity, soil moisture, and temperature.
  • Telecommunication – This also provides multiple networks or point-to-point communications in VoIP telephony.



Microwave radio systems use the equipment for broadcasting and telecommunications transmissions. These include radios situated on top of microwave towers, used to transmit microwave communications with the use of line-of-sight microwave radio technology.



Nearby microwave equipment uses the same frequencies without interfering with each other, unlike lower frequency radio waves.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

omni antennas

Basic Information on Isotropic and Omni Antennas

Antennas serve as the first receiving point and the last exit point in a satellite transmission system. They can transmit and receive from all directions (these are known as omni antennas) or in a particular direction (like those used in television broadcasting).



Antenna Basics

An isotropic antenna is a hypothetical antenna. It emits the same radiation in all radiation – uniform radiation in short. A directional antenna can radiate or receive electromagnetic waves from certain directions, with some directions better than the others. Omni antennas can radiate or intercept electromagnetic fields fairly well in horizontal directions.



Isotropic Antenna

Although defined as an ideal antenna that can radiate uniformly in all directions, there is no actual physical example of this. It has a three-dimensional radiation pattern, which simply means that it has a 360-degree beam width both in the vertical and horizontal direction. It is also defined as an ideal antenna that can radiate across all directions and has a gain of 1 (0 dB), meaning zero gain and zero loss.


With that, it is used as a reference antenna for antenna gain, one of the characteristics of antennas. The unit used to measure antenna gain is called dBi, which stands for decibels over isotropic. It is calculated by dividing the power in the strongest direction by the power that would be transmitted by the antenna that is emitting the same total power.



Omnidirectional Antenna

An omnidirectional antenna can receive signals of equal quality from all directions, similar to an isotropic antenna. This is in contrast to directional antennas, which are better at receiving signals from a particular direction. Having this kind of quality has its advantages, including the ability to detect signals that are weaker or somewhat distant – something it does better than an omni antenna. However, being able to do so leaves such an antenna unable to pull in signals from other directions.


Although the use of the prefix omni indicates that the antenna can receive signals from any direction, the truth is that such antennas are omnidirectional on just one plane. Put simply, an omni antenna can detect signals from the northern, southern, eastern, and western portions of its location but it can’t do so from above or below.




Given its spherical radiation pattern, omni antennas can be used for a variety of applications. They are widely used for radio broadcasting and in mobile devices that make use of radio. Examples of the latter include cellular phones, cordless phones, FM radios, GPS, walkie-talkies, and wireless computer networks.


Omnidirectional antennas are also used by base stations that need to communicate with mobile radios. Examples of these include dispatchers for the police and taxis, as well as aircraft communications.


Omni antennas are not difficult to install. Since it covers a 360-degree horizontal pattern, this type of antenna can be mounted from a ceiling in an indoor environment in an upside down position.


While omnidirectional antennas certainly have advantages over the directional variety, it’s still best to determine the type to use after a proper site survey.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

microwave antenna

Why Are Microwaves Used for Satellite Communication?

What would we do without television or the internet? How can one relax after a stressful day at work without the television? How can one catch up with friends and family or binge-watch that latest series on streaming services without the internet?


All of the activities mentioned above require communications satellites. These satellites make use of different radio and microwave frequencies to transmit and receive data. This article concerns the latter and why it is used for satellite communications.


To be clear, the microwave antenna isn’t the only antenna used for satellite communication.



Microwaves in Satellite Communication

Microwaves are used for their smaller wavelength, which allows antennas to point them directly at a receiving antenna. This feature makes it possible for different microwave equipment to use the same frequency but never interfere with each other.


Another reason for the use of microwaves is their high frequency, which allows them to carry huge amounts of information.


Microwave transmission is carried out with the help of microwave antennas, which are deployed in either of the following radio bands:


  • C band – 4 to 8 GHz
  • X band – 8 to 12 GHz
  • Ku band – 12 to 18 GHz
  • K band – 18 to 26.5 GHz
  • Ka band – 26.5 to 40 GHz
  • Q band – 33 to 50 GHz
  • W band – 75 to 110 GHz


Microwaves are best suited to communicate with geostationary satellites since they have a higher frequency and small wavelength. They are not the best for communication with satellites in low orbit.


Satellites emit microwaves with wavelengths between 1 and 10 cm. The dishes that emit the wavelengths have a larger diameter. This doesn’t produce wide diffraction, therefore, emitting a narrow beam which doesn’t spread out.


Given that, it follows that both transmitting and receiving dishes need to be aligned with one another. You can find a working example of this in a neighborhood with many satellite dish subscribers. If you take a close look at each of the dishes, you’ll find that all of them are pointed in the same direction.




Satellites in geostationary orbit are useful for communications since a microwave antenna can be aimed at them without having to know their exact location. The first geostationary satellite was used to broadcast the 1964 Summer Olympics. Major broadcast television networks have also made use of geostationary satellites to distribute programming to local affiliates. Such satellites are also used by cable TV networks.




Wireless LAN protocols make use of microwaves. If you’ve ever used Bluetooth or the WiFi then you have had experience with one of the uses of microwaves. A lot of tasks of modern living can now be done over the internet, and there’s a microwave to thank for that. Without it, buying groceries, paying bills, and booking movie tickets through smartphones and laptops won’t be possible.


Microwaves are used for satellite communication, but it isn’t the only one. A microwave antenna is used for its high frequency, which allows it to carry lots of information, and its short wavelength, which makes it easier to point directly at a receiving antenna.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

wi-fi extenders

5 Things You Need to Know About Wi-Fi Range Extenders

Having a good WiFi signal at home or in the office has become imperative these days. With the increasing need for a good internet connection to perform various activities, it’s no surprise that a lot of people are looking for ways to make their WiFi signals more reliable and solid. The answer to this is a WiFi range extender. But how exactly do Wi-Fi extenders work?


Here are Five Things you Need to Know:


Signal Amplification

Wi-Fi extenders work simply by receiving your existing signal where it amplifies it before transmitting it. This means that you get to double the coverage area of your network so it covers every corner of your home or office and even reaches different floors. By amplifying a weak signal, a WiFi extender will allow all wireless devices within its expanded coverage are to connect to your network and it has been proven to reach even your backyard making it a great investment for boosting your signal.


A WiFi extender works once a connection between the router and your wireless device is established. So, if you have a mobile phone and you want to connect to the internet without using up too much data, it’s smart to turn your router on. The extender then captures the transmission, amplifies it and pushes it back to your mobile phone where the signal is recognized and a connection is established. This means that you can browse the web even when you’re far away from your router and in areas in your home or office where you may not have had an internet connection.



Wi-fi extenders, boosters, and repeaters are essentially the same because they’re all used to boost WiFi coverage. But not every extender works the same, so it’s very important to choose one that fits your needs best. Do your research first and look at your options before choosing a kit that will best address your needs for better WiFi coverage.


Use and Installation

Investing in a WiFi extender is a lot better than purchasing extra cables and networking accessories just to improve signal strengths within your home or business premises. With the help of an extender, you can guarantee that signal is bounced to more areas across your house or office and you get to enjoy the same speed for browsing even in the farthest corners of your space.


To be able to install a WiFi extender in your home or office, you will need a couple of things like Ethernet ports and antennas. You also need to determine the right area in your house to place your extender because it needs to be plugged into an outlet and placed on a secure surface. You can also mount it on a wall for better coverage.



Now that you know the basics of how Wi-Fi extenders work, it will surely be a lot easier to decide if you need one for your home or office or not. And if you’re ready to purchase a WiFi extender for your space, make sure to trust only the best manufacturer to guarantee the best results possible.




RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek

antennas - sector antennas and others

What Makes High Directional Gain Antennas Better?

In the world of antennas, sector antennas are said to be some of the best on the market because of their high directional gain. This means that they offer more precision in targeting radio signals and their narrow radio beams offer better signal strength. This is why high-gain antennas are preferred in space missions and in open areas where geography will not interrupt radio waves. But what really makes a high directional gain antenna the best choice?



A High Gain Antenna can make a Signal 100 Times Stronger


High gain directional antennas such as sector antennas are known for transmitting more power to their receiver, which in turn increase the strength of the signal that it receives. This helps them strengthen a signal for up to 100 times than a regular antenna by capturing more energy.



Can Transmit to a Wider Distance


When compared to omnidirectional antennas, sector antennas transmit to a wider distance because it reduces interference from other sources. Their radio frequency can also be diverted in a specific direction to help transmit a signal to a farther distance. The frequencies used for directional antennas may vary from 200 to 300 MHz because of their size and their wideband property also depends on their type and directional properties.



Known for Energy Savings


In a regular omnidirectional antenna, a signal intended from Node A to C will need to travel from Node A to Node B before it reaches Node C. This process will take longer and uses up more energy. But in the case of sector antennas, this process is cut short because of the antenna’s directional gain. This means that Node A will reach Node C in a single hop because its beam is focused and has the ability to reach its receiver at a farther distance. But with their ability to increase transmission range, directional antennas require lesser power to reach their destination, which helps in saving energy spent by nodes for transmitting and receiving signals.



A High Gain Antenna makes Multiple Transmissions Possible


Perhaps one of the best features of directional antennas is their ability to allow continuous multiple transmissions without any interruptions. This means that Node A and Node B can transmit signals simultaneously with Node C and Node D without interruptions because the sender has the ability to focus the beam towards a specific receiver. Unlike omnidirectional antennas where continuous transmission is not allowed, directional antennas can perform the process seamlessly and without any problems.



Finally, directional antennas are highly in demand because of their ability to prevent wormhole attacks, which are used to disrupt signals using a high-quality out-of-band link that replays forwarded packets to other locations. When this happens, communication between nodes is completely disrupted, which can easily cause problems. With directional high gain antennas, a node will only get the signal that it’s intended to receive. This means that an attacker will not have the opportunity to execute a wormhole attack because the signal will only be recognized as a false neighbor.



RF Engineering and Energy Resource have 20 years of experience building products domestically and abroad. We’re located in Portage Michigan and we’re happy to offer our services here and to the surrounding areas: Kalamazoo, Portage, Scotts, Fulton, Vicksburg, Schoolcraft, Mattawan, Delton, and Battle Creek